Essential Oil Analysis - Captain Black and Sir Walter Raleigh Aromatic Smoking Tobaccos
Essential oil analyses of Captain Black smoking mixture and Sir Walter Raleigh Aromatic smoking tobacco (SWRA) have been completed. Moisture contents of Captain Black and SWRA were 20,9% and 16.9%, respectively Previous humectant analyses show that Captain Black contains ~16% propylene glycol and SWRA has ~11% diethylene glycol. The attached table lists the compounds which were identified in this study.
Sir Walter Raleigh Aromatic
Of these two samples, the essential oil of Sir Walter Raleigh Aromatic represented a more typical aromatic pipe-blend tobacco. Compounds which appear to be additives are trimethylpyrazine, m-hydroxybenzaldehyde, cyclotene, cyclotene isomer, maltol, ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, coumarin, ethyl vanillin, ethyl linolenate and some unidentified components.
Cyclotene, coumarin, and ethyl vanillin are by far the most abundant of these additives. A cyclotene isomer is probably present as a by-product formed during the synthesis of cyclotene. Coumarin and ethyl vanillin are common tobacco flavors and are used extensively in aromatic smoking tobaccos. The amount of coumarin in this product is the largest we have encountered in a tobacco product with the exception of Captain Black, which is discussed below.
Maltol, one of the additives that was found in lesser quantities, has a sweet taste and delivers a sweet smoke aroma. Myristic, palmitic and linolenic add ethyl esters may be present from fermented tobaccos. Trimethylpyrazine accentuates burley character in the smoke. m-hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified by mass spectrometry only and has not been evaluated as a flavorant. In general, SWRA appears to be a common flue-cured, burley blend with added sweeteners and possibly some tobaccos fermented in the presence of ethanol.
Captain Black Smoking Mixture
Captain Black tobacco has a more complex additive system than Sir Walter Raleigh Aromatic. Essential oil data on this tobacco show that several compounds are added in large quantities. Additives to this tobacco appear to be 2- & 3-methylbutanol, trimethylpyrazine, 2,5- and 2,6-dimethylpyrazines, acetic acid, benzaldehyde, proplonic acid, isobutyric acid, propylene glycol, menthol, 2- & 3-methylbutyric adds, y-caprolactone, n-valeric acid, β-methylvaleric acid, 4-(2-furyl)-3-buten-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, two 4-alkylbutyrolactones, 2-acetylpyrrole, anisic aldehyde, y-nonalactone, octanoic acid, heliotropin, anisyl alcohol, benzole add, coumarin, ethyl vanillin, phenyl-acetic acid, myristic acid, and a number of unidentified compounds.
Coumarin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillin are added in hugh quantities. The 1,2-propylene glycol acetates are probably present from reaction of the large amount of propylene glycol with acetic acid. Vanillin, anisyl alcohol, and anisic aldehyde are listed as individual additives, however, these compounds occur in vanilla extract which may be their source. A group of lactones, y-caprolactone, y-nonalactone, and two 4-alkyl substituted butyrolactones, were found in this tobacco. Lactones such as those reported here generally have positive influences on smoke taste and aroma. The compound, 4-(2-furyl)-3-buten-2-one, is reported to impart a sweet, spicy, and weakly woody taste to smoke.
The types of tobaccos used are not dear. No sclareolide was detected, but acid content was high, particularly so for acetic and propionic acids. This would seem to indicate that little or no Turkish was used in the blend. Indole content was low which would indicate low burley content. Carbohydrate degradation products were present at high levels which would be consistent with a large amount of flue-cured or heat-treated tobacco. However, K-compounds, 2-pyrrole carboxaldehyde and 5-methylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde were also present in large amounts. These compounds are usually increased by ammoniation of flue-cured tobaccos; however, carbohydrate degradation products are sharply reduced by such treatment. Ammonia levels in the two products were identical at 0.16%, and tobacco pH was 5.14 for SWRA vs 4.69 for Captain Black. It is possible that the Captain Black tobaccos have been fermented or processed in some special way. We can only speculate that this is the case, since we have little experience with smoking tobaccos.
In summary, Captain Black is a product with large amounts of added sweeteners. It appears that acids, lactones and other flavor components are also added. The base tobacco has some flue-cured character but is unknown to us.
August 16, 1978
Captain Black Smoking Mixture Manufactured by Lane Limited
Summary report of analyses of Captain Black Smoking Mixture manufactured by Lane Limited, New York, New York, and currently being introduced in the Bronx, New York area.
The packaging for the product consists of a wraparound type pouch. made of two layers of 1.3 mil polyethylene with a printed label insert. No overwrap is used with the pouch. The pouches are packed six to a carton which converts into a six-pouch counter display similar to our twelve-pouch Paladin Blackcherry carton. The cartons are over-wrapped with a vinyl coated cellophane to prolong freshness until the carton is opened by the retailer, and this is an innovation.
The blend has a unique appearance consisting of three types of tobacco: Bright, Burley, and some distinctive black tobacco of undetermined origin. This black tobacco, which has high sheen, is the most predominant component, and we are taking a further look at it.
Tobacco analysis shows this blend to be rather unusual with a high nicotine content (2.73%), a medium total volatile base (0.42%), low sugar content (8.21), and no by-products. Recent analyses of domestic smoking tobaccos show only Philip Morris products with nicotine contents even approaching this level (Bond Street 2.21 and Old Delft 2.4% nicotine).
Our laboratory pipe panel evaluated Captain Black and found it to be a mild, sweet, and smooth smoke but rather bland.
The American Tobacco Company
November 16, 1972